Electron microscopic examination of sperm is an electronic diagnostic test, which allows to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of male gametes in the ejaculate using multiple optical zoom. The test is carried out using an electron microscope capable of zooming the material under investigation in a million times. This immense technique makes it possible to analyze the intracellular structures of male germ cells, which is impossible using any other study (MAR test, spermogram).
To draw conclusions on the qualitative and quantitative state of biological material, analysis of 45 indicators is done. The most significant stages of the study are:
- core characteristics (form, quality);
- study of the shape of the axial filament of the flagellum;
- study of the structure of the outer ring fibrils;
- analysis of the structure of mitochondria;
- establishment of dislocation of cytoplasmic drops;
- description of acrosome (presence, size, characteristic);
- characteristic of dense fibrous membrane (density, structure);
- a description of the form of centrioles;
- detection and analysis of genetic pathologies;
- determining the presence of abnormal cells, bacteria and viruses.
Since other types of studies are not always informative or even their results do not expose apparent pathology and may be within the normal range, EMIS is assigned to:
- male infertility of unexplained genesis;
- miscarriages in history in the early stages;
- presence of gametes with teratozoospermia or asthenozoospermia;
- preparation for IVF, ICSI, artificial insemination;
- detection by results of other surveys of a decrease in the number of active gametes;
- having multiple unproductive IVF attempts.
It should be noted that EMIS is not carried out in the case of azoospermia and severe oligospermia detected during the standard sperm profile. Since sometimes the main cause of impaired fertility is precisely the changes in the microstructure of male germ cells, only EMIS makes it possible to detect pathology and determine the tactics and strategy of fighting the ailment. For the study, gametes are fixed using special resins. Then a few micron sections are made, which subsequently serve as material for studying the structure of spermatozoa.
Electron-microscopic examination of spermatozoa is the most accurate diagnostic method available today, which allows to analyze and describe the internal and external structure of a cell, to determine the hidden causes of infertility and to begin an effective fight against infertility.