The question "A boy or a girl?" is not always related simply with the future parents` desire to produce a son or daughter. There is a number of genetic pathologies linked to the gender. Thanks to artificial conception by means of IVF, it became possible with 100% guarantee to choose the sex of the future child. This allows you to endure a healthy baby without any anomalies caused by sex chromosomes.
the genetic material determines sexual identity contained in the male sexual cell. The female germ cell-the egg-contains 2 X chromosomes, the spermatozoon – X and Y. When the two X chromosomes merge, the embryo will be female, with X and Y being male. Thus, the chromosomes X and Y cause the formation of primary sexual characteristics and the laying of organs.
In vitro fertilization occurs outside the uterine cavity, which allows to fully control the sex of the embryo.
Before the IVF procedure, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is carried out, which is a method of the embryo examination at the molecular-biological level. For the analysis, three- and five-day embryos are used. Thanks to the PGD method, it is possible to identify more than 150 genetic pathologies, including Down's syndrome, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis. The main task of PGD conducting is selection a quality, genetically "healthy" embryo for implantation.
To conduct the study, a biopsy and selection of several cells of the fetal embryonic tissue are performed. Placenta will form from the cells of this tissue in the future. Cells from which the tissues and organs of the fetus will develop in diagnosis do not participate. The genetic material is placed on a slide (microscope slide) and is labeled with DNA probes. These are special fluorescent labels glowing in different colors. Each chromosome has its own label, each pair of chromosomes has a definite glow. Next, the material is visualized and identified by counting the number of chromosomes in each nucleus. Blastocyst is considered for transfer if it contains a normal number of chromosomes. In the case of trisomy (three chromosomes) or monosomy (one chromosome), the embryo is abnormal and is not recommended for implantation. At the same stage, the sex of the unborn child is determined.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is recommended in cases when there is at least one of the cases listed in the anamnesis. Among them:
- Pathology of chromosomes in karyotype. In this case, there is a high probability that the genetic deviations of the parents will be inherited.
- Previous miscarriages, especially in the early stages. Often, they are triggered by genetic disorders of fetal development.
- Disruption of implantation of unknown genesis.
- The mother's age is over 35 years. This is due to the quality decrease of oocytes with age and an increased risk of pathologies developing in the embryo chromosomes.
In the extracorporeal method, the fertilization of the egg with sperm occurs in a test tube. The oocyte is injected with sperm and observed for its insemination.
The standard IVF procedure allows you to insert 2-3 embryos into the uterus after preimplantation genetic diagnosis. The amount depends on the results of the genetic analysis before implanting.
To completely avoid genetic abnormalities and to detect the sex of the unborn child accurately, choose preimplantation genetic diagnosis as a part of your IVF cycle.