One of the most common assisted reproductive technologies is surrogacy motherhood. It involves the process when a woman agrees to take out and give birth to a genetically unrelated child on a voluntary basis, who will later be transferred to biological parents. Further, from a legal point of view, the parents of this baby will be the genetic father and mother, despite the fact that another woman has given birth to him. There are traditional and gestational surrogacy types.
Let us see what these species are characterized by, how they differ from each other.
Throughout history, mankind faced situations where wives for various reasons could not conceive and bear an heir. In such cases, they often resorted to the help of other women for carrying a baby, whose father was the husband of a childless woman.
Today, traditional surrogacy is characterized by conception using the surrogate`s oocyte and the sperm of the genetic father. The surrogate mother becomes biological, being a gamete donor. Conception occurs either by the method of intrauterine insemination (IUI), or by the method of in vitro fertilization (IVF).
In contrast to gestational surrogacy, the legislation of most countries prohibits this type of surrogacy and equates it to human trafficking.
Gestational surrogacy involves the fertilization of an oocyte by a biological mother with the sperm of a biological father, followed by implantation of a surrogate mother embryo. Gestational surrogacy excludes the genetic connection of the surrogate mother with the fetus.
When an in vitro fertilization procedure is performed using the gestational surrogacy protocol, conception occurs in vitro. Over a period of three to five days, the zygote develops under the supervision of reproduction specialists, and, if necessary, analyzes of the chromosome set are carried out. Only a high-quality, genetically healthy embryo is placed in the uterus of a surrogate mother. After implantation, the woman will carry the child the entire period and give birth to it, as would be the case with a normal pregnancy. Gestational surrogacy is in no case more dangerous than pregnancy in the result of natural conception. Preparation for gestational surrogacy begins with the selection of a surrogate mother. Candidates undergo a full medical, psychological examination, pass certain mandatory tests. The choice continues until a potential surrogate mother can fully satisfy the specialists` requirements for health reasons. After the contract on gestational surrogacy is signed, the surrogate mother will have to undergo a specific course of special specific drug therapy, ensuring successful fertilization, survival of the embryo. After a successful implantation, an ordinary pregnancy begins, not much different from a normal one, and will end in childbirth, and the baby can go home directly with their biological parents.